Mohsen Kadivar is a philosopher, theologian, an Iranian dissident who has been in exile since 2008, and research professor of Islamic studies at Duke University (Durham, North Carolina, US). Born in 1959, he studied at the Islamic seminary at Qom earning a certificate of Ijtihad (highest degree in Islamic religious tradition). He received his PhD in Islamic Philosophy and Theology from Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran. Specializing in classical Islam and contemporary Islamic thought, his main intellectual interests and topics of publications include: classical Muslim philosophy, classical and modern Shi’a theology and legal theories, human rights and democracy in Islam, and political theology in post-revolutionary Iran. Kadivar published 24 books in Persian and Arabic, (including 11 e-books after his publication was banned in Iran since 2009) and several articles in English.